Massive Extradition of Paramilitary Bosses in Colombia

What has happened with extradited paramilitary bosses from Colombia

After being extradited to the United States from Colombia, many former paramilitary bosses have completed their sentences. Some were recaptured for other crimes after being set free in the U.S. and sent back to Colombia. Others are still behind bars.

A few like Rodrigo Tovar Pupo, aka Jorge 40, were set free recently after completing a 12 year sentence in the United States for drug trafficking. After arriving in Colombia, he was detained and taken to prison to begin serving a 47-year sentence for multiple murders. He also faces more than one thousand criminal charges pending against him in Colombia. These charges are related to his illegal activities while a member of a paramilitary group.

Why were paramilitary bosses extradited

Colombian paramilitary bosses were extradited to the US because they failed to comply with a 2003 treaty, which gave them reduced jail sentences for confessing their crimes and surrendering assets. The Colombian government declared in early 2008 that the paramilitary bosses refused to perform their side of the deal. This led to their extradition in May of the same year.

Supposedly, these extradited paramilitary bosses did not confess their crimes or gave up their properties. The paramilitary-government accord which became law 975 in 2005, was supposed to give way for victims of the violence to know the truth about what happened to their family members. Also to make public all the atrocities committed within the conflict. The turned over assets were going to be used to compensate their victims. However, the government decided to extradite them because of their lack of commitment to meet their part of the deal.

Another reason mentioned by the government of Colombia for their decision was that these bosses were still involved in ongoing criminal activities from behind bars.

So, where are they now?

Many of these paramilitary bosses are still behind bars in the United States with long jail sentences. These are mainly the result of drug trafficking and money laundering convictions. Some of the free extradited bosses are avoiding jail time in Colombia by requesting political asylums and other legal tactics. Only a few are back in Colombia facing criminal charges.

Salvatore Mancuso is one of the most awaited paramilitary bosses in Colombia. After completing a 15-year sentence in the US, he has avoided being sent back to face at least an 8-year prison sentence pending against him in Colombia. He has avoided extradition back to Colombia because he is also an Italian citizen. Therefore, the four or more extradition requests made by Colombian authorities have yet to be successful.

Others, such as Guillermo Perez Alzata, aka Pablo Sevillano, Eduardo Enrique Vengoechea Mola, aka El Flaco and Nodier Giraldo are now free. However, a few were extradited back to Colombia but have been recaptured to be judged for other charges, old and new.

It has been more than 15 years since the paramilitary benefits law went into effect and these bosses turned themselves in. After all this time, many victims of these paramilitary groups are still waiting to be compensated and to know the truth.

Looking At Cosmetic Surgery Abroad As An Option? Begin With These Tips

Cosmetic surgery carries risks and it also has its limitations. The first thing you should do to ensure that your procedure goes according to your desires is to educate yourself about cosmetic surgery. You will find some helpful suggestions in this article and should be able to make much better decisions after reading it.

Find out more about Cosmetic Surgery

Before you decide to have cosmetic surgery, find out if there is something else you can do to fix your problems. Cosmetic procedures have become commonplace and are performed regularly around the world, but there can be complications. Some issues with your appearance can be taken care of by far less severe means, the results may not be as fast but it’s probably worth looking into.


There are many positive aspects to cosmetic surgery, but there are also risks and limitations to it as well. You need to educate yourself to understand the risks and limitations and make your decisions based on the right information.

Learn all that you can about any procedures you are considering. You must obtain as much information as you can about it prior to discussing it with a surgeon. You will also be more able to spot any strange or inconsistencies that could warn you to look for a different doctor, if you are well informed.

It is important to remember that all surgical procedure has potential risks. Be sure to discuss these risks with your surgeon so you fully understand them. When thinking about cosmetic surgery, it can be easy to focus only on the results and forget about any risks.

Questions about Cosmetic Surgery

What do you ask the doctor? There are actually several bits of information you need to know prior to the actual procedure. You should ask to see the surgeon’s portfolio so you can see the potential results of others who have used that surgeon’s services before. Inquire about the laboratory exams, recovery time and medications needed.

Talk to the surgeon and ask about past work. There are no guarantees that your surgery will go well, but the odds will be better if you interview and screen potential surgeons.  Find out about what medical school he or she attended, what year he/she graduated, and how often he/she performs your type of procedure. You must also ask for pictures and comments of patients who were operated on by this plastic surgeon.

Do some homework to discover if the surgeon has a revision policy. Some surgeons have a policy where they will correct their own procedures for twelve months after your surgery is complete.  Also make sure to review the credentials of the location where your surgery will take place. Just as important as researching the actual surgeon, you shouldn’t accept a clinic or hospital without knowing the details about it. This includes any problems or successes.

After deciding on where to have your procedure, make sure you talk to your doctor about any antibiotics you may need to take afterwards. You will probably need to take this type of medicine after the procedure so you are less likely to get an infection. However you should get a second opinion if your doctor says you won’t need to take anything.

Cost of Cosmetic Surgery in Colombia

The cost of cosmetic surgery may change depending on several factors. The amount of anesthetic, clinic charges and other fees. Make sure you consult with your surgeon or his financial department about the medical costs prior to proceeding. Do not make any payment until all of your financial responsibility has been fully disclosed in writing.

Talk with your doctor; have him break down each component of the final price. You need to come to an agreement on a payment deadline, and perhaps apply for a payment plan or financing in the case of expensive procedures. It is important that all of this is figured out prior to your surgery.

And finally, do not schedule having cosmetic procedures during an emotional stage in your life. It will take you tons of energy to recover from the surgery, so the timing of your surgery is important too. Slow recovery time can have a detrimental effect on your emotions and may negatively affect your over all health.

This article has provided you with a starting point. Use it to make the best decisions.

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